inquanto.minimizers

Module provides access to minimizers compatible with variational experiments.

class MinimizerRotosolve(max_iterations=20, tolerance=1e-4, disp=False, order_independence=True)

Bases: GeneralMinimizer

The Rotosolve minimizer, introduced in Quantum 5, 391 (2021).

This learns the minimum of an estimator with a sinusoidal energy landscape.

Parameters:
  • max_iterations (int, default: 20) – Maximum number of iterations allowed before the minimization is terminated.

  • tolerance (float, default: 1e-4) – Tolerance for convergence.

  • disp (bool, default: False) – If True, print information to the screen throughout minimization.

  • order_independence (bool, default: True) – If False, the minimizer depends on the order of parameters. If True, the minimizer operates independently of parameter order.

generate_report()

Generates a summary of the minimization.

Returns:

dict – A dictionary containing the number of iterations (n_iterations), the final value (final_value) and final parameters (final_parameters).

minimize(function, initial)

Minimize the function provided.

Minimization starts at the parameters provided by the initial argument.

Parameters:
Returns:

tuple[float, ndarray] – A tuple containing the final value and parameters obtained by the minimization.

Raises:

RuntimeError – If the optimizer does not converge within the maximum number of iterations.

class MinimizerSGD(learning_rate=0.01, decay_rate=0.05, max_iterations=100, disp=False, callback=None)

Bases: GeneralMinimizer

Uses the gradient and geometry of the objective function to accelerate minimization.

Introduced in Quantum 4, 269 (2020).

Parameters:
  • learning_rate (float, default: 0.01) – Stepsize in direction of descent.

  • decay_rate (float, default: 0.05) – User defined decay rate.

  • max_iterations (int, default: 100) – Maximum number of iterations allowed before variational loop is terminated.

  • disp (bool, default: False) – If True, displays minimization history.

  • callback (Optional[Callable], default: None) – Custom callback for minimizer.

generate_report()

Generates a report summarizing the minimization.

Includes the final value, the final parameters and the number of iterations performed.

Returns:

dict – A dictionary containing the final value, parameters and number of iterations obtained by the minimizer.

minimize(function, initial, gradient)

Minimize the objective function, starting at the initial parameters provided by the user.

Parameters:
Returns:

tuple[float, Union[ndarray, list[float]]] – A tuple containing the final value and parameters obtained by the minimizer.

class MinimizerSPSA(max_iterations=int(1e5), tolerance=1e-4, disp=False)

Bases: GeneralMinimizer

The Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation (SPSA) minimizer.

Implementation details are based on https://www.jhuapl.edu/spsa/PDF-SPSA/Spall_Implementation_of_the_Simultaneous.PDF

Parameters:
  • max_iterations (int, default: int(1e5)) – Maximum number of iterations allowed before the minimization is terminated.

  • disp (bool, default: False) – If True, print information to the screen throughout minimization.

  • tolerance (float, default: 1e-4) – Tolerance for convergence.

  • disp – If True, print information to the screen throughout minimization.

generate_report()

Generate a report summarizing the minimization.

Includes the final value and the final parameters performed.

Returns:

dict – A dictionary containing the final value and parameters obtained by the minimizer.

minimize(function, initial, alpha=0.602, gamma=0.101, a=0.5, c=0.2, stability_constant=None, perturbation_samples=1, perturbation_samples_init=None, gradient_smoothing=False)

Minimize the function provided.

Minimization starts at the parameters provided by the initial argument.

Parameters:
  • function (Callable[[Union[ndarray, list[float]]], float]) – Objective function to minimize.

  • initial (Union[ndarray, list[float]]) – Initial parameters to minimize.

  • alpha (float, default: 0.602) – The exponent of the learning rate powerseries.

  • gamma (float, default: 0.101) – The exponent of the perturbation powerseries.

  • a (float, default: 0.5) – The numerator of the initial learning rate magnitude.

  • c (float, default: 0.2) – The initial perturbation magnitude.

  • stability_constant (Optional[float], default: None) – The denominator of the initial learning rate magnitude.

  • perturbation_samples (int, default: 1) – The number of perturbation samples used for gradient approximation.

  • perturbation_samples_init (Optional[int], default: None) – The number of perturbation samples used for the initial gradient approximation. If None, this will the same as perturbation_samples.

  • gradient_smoothing (bool, default: False) – If True, the gradient approximation is based on previous approximations.

Returns:

tuple[float, Union[ndarray, list[float]]] – The final value and parameters obtained by the minimization.

class MinimizerScipy(method=OptimizationMethod.L_BFGS_B_smooth, options=None, disp=False, callback=None)

Bases: GeneralMinimizer

A simple wrapper for SciPy minimization routines.

More minimizer details can be found in the SciPy documentation.

Parameters:
  • method (OptimizationMethod | str, default: OptimizationMethod.L_BFGS_B_smooth) – The method to use. Popular methods to choose from include "CG", "BFGS", "SLSQP", and "COBYLA". For the L-BFGS-B method,the "OptimizationMethod" enum is used to conveniently specify the optimization method along with its associated default parameters.

  • options (Optional[dict], default: None) – Options used for calibration which are passed through to the SciPy minimization.

  • argument. (This overrides any default settings provided by the method)

  • disp (bool, default: False) – If True, prints minimization history.

  • callback (Optional[Callable], default: None) – Custom callback function.

generate_report()

Generates a report containing a summary of the minimization.

Returns:

dict – A dictionary containing the final value and location of the final value from the minimization.

Raises:

ValueError – If no result is available.

property method: str

Get the method being used by the optimizer as a string.

Returns:

The name of the minimization algorithm used by the minimizer.

minimize(function, initial, gradient=None)

Minimize the function provided.

The minimization starts at the parameters provided in the initial argument, and the gradient (if provided) is used to aid the minimization and is evaluated by calling the gradient argument.

Parameters:
  • function (Callable[[ndarray], float]) – The objective function to minimize.

  • initial (ndarray) – Initial parameters to minimize.

  • gradient (Optional[Callable[[ndarray], ndarray]], default: None) – Gradient function to assist minimization.

Returns:

tuple[float, ndarray] – The value of the function at the minimum and the location of the minimum.

Raises:

ValueError – If optimization process fails.

property options: dict

Get the options passed to SciPy by the minimizer internally.

Returns:

A dictionary containing the options used by SciPy to perform the minimization.

class NaiveEulerIntegrator(time_eval, disp=False, callback=None, linear_solver=GeneralIntegrator.linear_solver_scipy_linalg)

Bases: GeneralIntegrator

A simple Euler integrator to solve time evolution problems.

Parameters:
  • time_eval (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – A monotonically increasing or decreasing sequence of time points at which derivatives are evaluated.

  • disp (bool, default: False) – If True, print information to the screen throughout minimization.

  • callback (Optional[Callable[[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], float, ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]], Any]], default: None) – An optional function \(f(p, t, x)\), where \(p\) are the parameters of the differential equation, \(t\) is the time at which the derivatives are evaluated and \(x\) are the derivatives.

  • linear_solver (Optional[Callable[[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]], ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]]], default: GeneralIntegrator.linear_solver_scipy_linalg) – An optional solver for the derivative at time \(t\).

static linear_solver_scipy_linalg(a, b)

A wrapper for the scipy.linalg.solve() method.

Solves the linear equation a @ x == b for the unknown x for the square a matrix. More information can be found in the SciPy documentation.

Parameters:
  • a (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Square shaped matrix.

  • b (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Input for the right hand side of the equation.

Returns:

ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]] – An ndarray of the solution.

static linear_solver_scipy_pinvh(a, b)

Linear equation solver using scipy.linalg.pinvh().

Solves the linear equation a @ x == b for the unknown x using the (Moore-Penrose) pseudo-inverse of a Hermitian matrix, a. More information on scipy.linalg.pinvh() can be found in the SciPy documentation.

Parameters:
  • a (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Hermitian matrix to be inverted.

  • b (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Input for the right hand side of the equation.

Returns:

ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]] – An ndarray of the solution.

solve(linear_problem, initial, *args, **kwargs)

Solve the differential equation.

Parameters:
  • linear_problem (Callable[[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], float], tuple[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]]]) – A function \(f(p, t) \mapsto A,b\) which takes the parameters and time and returns the linear problem (matrix \(A(t)\), vector \(b(t)\) of \(A*x=b\)) at a time \(t\).

  • initial (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Initial parameters.

  • args (Any)

  • kwargs (Any)

Returns:

ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]] –:

Array containing the solution of the differential equation for each time in time_eval, with the

initial value in the first row.

class ScipyIVPIntegrator(time_eval, disp=False, callback=None, linear_solver=GeneralIntegrator.linear_solver_scipy_linalg)

Bases: GeneralIntegrator

A simple wrapper for SciPy solve_ivp() for linear problems.

More details about solve_ivp() can be found in the SciPy documentation.

Parameters:
  • time_eval (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – A monotonically increasing or decreasing sequence of time points at which derivatives are evaluated.

  • disp (bool, default: False) – If True, print information to the screen throughout minimization.

  • callback (Optional[Callable[[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], float, ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]], Any]], default: None) – An optional function \(f(p, t, x)\), where \(p\) are the parameters of the differential equation, \(t\) is the time at which the derivatives are evaluated and \(x\) are the derivatives.

  • linear_solver (Callable[[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]], ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]], default: GeneralIntegrator.linear_solver_scipy_linalg) – An optional solver for the derivative at time \(t\).

static linear_solver_scipy_linalg(a, b)

A wrapper for the scipy.linalg.solve() method.

Solves the linear equation a @ x == b for the unknown x for the square a matrix. More information can be found in the SciPy documentation.

Parameters:
  • a (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Square shaped matrix.

  • b (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Input for the right hand side of the equation.

Returns:

ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]] – An ndarray of the solution.

static linear_solver_scipy_pinvh(a, b)

Linear equation solver using scipy.linalg.pinvh().

Solves the linear equation a @ x == b for the unknown x using the (Moore-Penrose) pseudo-inverse of a Hermitian matrix, a. More information on scipy.linalg.pinvh() can be found in the SciPy documentation.

Parameters:
  • a (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Hermitian matrix to be inverted.

  • b (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Input for the right hand side of the equation.

Returns:

ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]] – An ndarray of the solution.

solve(linear_problem, initial, *args, **kwargs)

Solve the differential equation.

Parameters:
  • linear_problem (Callable[[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], float], tuple[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]]]) – A function \(f(p, t) \mapsto A,b\) which takes the parameters and time and returns the linear problem (matrix \(A(t)\), vector \(b(t)\) of \(A*x=b\)) at a time \(t\).

  • initial (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Initial parameters.

  • args (Any)

  • kwargs (Any)

Returns:

ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]] – Array containing the solution of the differential equation for each time in time_eval, with the initial value in the first row.

class ScipyODEIntegrator(time_eval, disp=False, callback=None, linear_solver=GeneralIntegrator.linear_solver_scipy_linalg)

Bases: GeneralIntegrator

A simple wrapper for SciPy odeint() for linear problems.

More details about odeint() can be found in the SciPy documentation.

Parameters:
  • time_eval (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – A monotonically increasing or decreasing sequence of time points at which derivatives are evaluated.

  • disp (bool, default: False) – If True, print information to the screen throughout minimization.

  • callback (Optional[Callable[[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], float, ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]], Any]], default: None) – An optional function \(f(p, t, x)\), where \(p\) are the parameters of the differential equation, \(t\) is the time at which the derivatives are evaluated and \(x\) are the derivatives.

  • linear_solver (Callable[[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]], ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]], default: GeneralIntegrator.linear_solver_scipy_linalg) – An optional solver for the derivative at time \(t\).

static linear_solver_scipy_linalg(a, b)

A wrapper for the scipy.linalg.solve() method.

Solves the linear equation a @ x == b for the unknown x for the square a matrix. More information can be found in the SciPy documentation.

Parameters:
  • a (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Square shaped matrix.

  • b (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Input for the right hand side of the equation.

Returns:

ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]] – An ndarray of the solution.

static linear_solver_scipy_pinvh(a, b)

Linear equation solver using scipy.linalg.pinvh().

Solves the linear equation a @ x == b for the unknown x using the (Moore-Penrose) pseudo-inverse of a Hermitian matrix, a. More information on scipy.linalg.pinvh() can be found in the SciPy documentation.

Parameters:
  • a (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Hermitian matrix to be inverted.

  • b (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Input for the right hand side of the equation.

Returns:

ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]] – An ndarray of the solution.

solve(linear_problem, initial, *args, **kwargs)

Solve the differential equation.

Parameters:
  • linear_problem (Callable[[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], float], tuple[ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]], ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]]]) – A function \(f(p, t) \mapsto A,b\) which takes the parameters and time and returns the

  • problem (linear)

  • initial (ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]]) – Initial parameters.

  • args (Any)

  • kwargs (Any)

Returns:

ndarray[Any, dtype[TypeVar(_ScalarType_co, bound= generic, covariant=True)]] – Array containing the solution to the problem for each time in time_eval, with the initial value in the first row.